Every RFID-system consists of a reader and a transponder (known as RFID-label, which is also called RFID-tag).

Usual RFID-tag is a microchip attached to a radio antenna, which is installed on an integrated circuit. The microchip can contain up to two kilobytes of information. For example, the label may contain information about a product or delivery: production data, destination and duration of implementation.

Usual reader consists of one or more antennas that radiate the radio waves, and receive signals from the tags.

There are usually three types of RFID-tags:


Passive tags do not have built-in power source. The label is charged by the electromagnetic signal sent by reader. This signal is enough to receive the information from the reader and to give a response.


Active tags have their own power source and do not depend on the energy of the reader. Active tags generally have much greater read range (up to 300 m.) and more memory than passive tags; they are capable of storing large amounts of data.

Battery-assisted passive

These labels are very similar to passive ones, but they are equipped with a battery that provides energy for the chip. They can operate at greater distances than passive tags, but the amplitude of these tags depends on the sensitivity of the reader’s receiver.

Classes of tags:

Class 0
Tags without built-in power source. The tag is charged by the electromagnetic signal sent by reader. This signal is enough to receive the information from the reader and to give a response.
Class 1
Group of Passive Functional Tags. This large group contains tags with any additional features that distinguish them from the first group. For example, date overwriting and data encryption, etc.
Class 2
Group of Semi-Passive Tags. This group includes all tags, using the optional power supply. At the same time the main source of power supply must be the reader, or rather, the energy radiated by it.
Class 3
Group of Active Tags. These tags have an internal power supply, fully providing necessary energy to every tag, regardless of the reader.
Class 4
Group of RFID Tags. These tags contain not only built-in power supply, but also set of specific logic, which allows tags to communicate with each other or with readers.

By reading range RFID-systems can be divided into following groups:


Information can be read at a distance of up to 20 cm.


Information can be read at a distance from 20 cm to 5 m.


Information can be read at a distance from 5 m to 300 m.

RFID systems operate in low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) bands.

125 KHz to 132 KHz (LF)

The LF systems are used in access control systems, based on RFID-technology.

13.56 MHz (HF)

Most HF RFID systems are used in libraries and archives, based on technologies of RFID and NFC (a set of short-range wireless technologies, typically requiring a distance of 10 cm or less).

860 MHz – 960 MHz (UHF)

UHF RFID is used in retail inventory management, logistics and other basic processes as well as staff identification by bracelets.

2.4 GHz (microwaves)

This frequency range is used in ultrasensitive tags for determining the exact positioning of the object.

There are other bands (e.g., 160 kHz, 433 MHz, 5.8 GHz), but they are usually used for special applications.

RFID system implementation

The first step is to assess the vital processes of the organization to be improved through the introduction of RFID. It’s desirable to represent it graphically, denoting a list active objects, all inputs and outputs. It’s also necessary to identify weaknesses in terms of costs and schedule actions that will help resolve the issue.
On the basis of made researches the technical expert creates a directory of modified processes. This is followed by the writing of technical specifications, the choice of the accounting system, the determination of processes automation level and the necessary analytical information. You can also determine the deadlines.
At this stage the structure of the equipment is determined. If necessary, takes place writing of software to implement a pilot program. A specialist from the integrator company also holds training sessions for staff of the client company, explaining how to use the system, how to mark the goods and so on.
At first the trial version of system is implemented, which at a certain stage of the project is absolutely essential. It allows you to analyze the results and make the necessary adjustments until full implementation. After all adjustments are made, if necessary, takes place the full implementation of the system.
Full implementation
Full implementation of the system can include a plurality of stages. The necessary correction of system will be based on the analysis of feedback from staff working directly with the system, as well as through its constant monitoring.
This step ensures warranty service, staff training, visit of specialists if necessary, and other accompanying measures.

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