Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – automatically identifying objects, when data, stored in the RFID-tags (microprocessor devices with a radio interface), is read or written by means of radio signals.





Invention of RFID technology by Léon Theremen in USSR.


The invention of a bar code and receiving of the first patent.


The invention of laser and the creation of scanner and commercial system for retailers and UPC standard.


Took place the first demonstration of passive RFID tag (Administration of New York harbor).


A UPC scanner was installed in a supermarket Marsh's (Ohio, USA), where were sold 10 gum packs with a bar code attached.


Mr. Mario W. Cardullo received the first patent of active RFID tags. Jan. 23.


Symbol Technologies Company produced a handheld scanner.


The US Department of Defense took the directive, that all suppliers must label products with bar codes in accordance with the Code Standard 39.


Only 15,000 suppliers ere using bar codes, Wal-Mart (a large US chain of stores) introduced a requirement for suppliers to use bar codes.


From the «New York Times»: «bar code will never be repaid, but will improve the quality of service»


Development of RFID tags for the system of admission to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (one of sixteen DOE national laboratories)


Bar codes are widely implemented in warehouses and distribution centers


More than 60,000 suppliers use Wal-Mart barcodes


The first mention of RFID as a possible replacement of bar codes


Using RFID for paying travel fare on the highway in Oklahoma


Texas Instruments announces the creation of a business unit for the commercialization of RFID


Bar codes become an industry standard in the US


Using RFID for passports in Malaysia


In September was developed EPC Class 1 Gen1 label


EPCglobal released the first standard in RFID technology


Wal-Mart and the US Department of Defense announced the requirement to label products with the help of using RFID tags to the suppliers from top-100 list


EPCglobal ratified the Gen2 standard


Albertson's, Target, Metro open RFID centers of equipment completing


Boeing applying RFID into production industry


Moscow Metro launches RFID tickets projects


American Apparel announces plans to use RFID in 220 stores


Wal-Mart announces the start implementation of RFID in clothing labeling


  • Industry

An important industrial user of RFID-technology is Auto industry. Each RFID-label includes a set of final product requirements. The label may be placed on the frame or body of any auto on the assembly line. During the conveyor production in various stages the vehicle can be automatically painted with particular color, or may be installed other wheel disks, may be changed the color of upholstery etc.

  • Transport and storage logistics

Introduction of RFID technology in logistics simplifies significantly procedures to transport the goods from the manufacturer to the final customer, allowing you to track its transportation both within a single object, and, for example, between shops.

  • Hospitals and healthcare

In hospitals RFID is used to improve the comfort and safety of patient care. RFID-bracelets are used for identification of babies with their mothers. In addition, such bracelets can be used when it is necessary quickly to find the right doctor or a patient who left a hospital chamber. Especially when this patient needs regular observation for health reasons (f. e. in case of Alzheimer disease).

  • Access control systems

RFID technology is widely used in access control systems (ACS) for the identification of objects (people, vehicles). It uses various standards and formats of the physical RFID tags.

The most popular formats for human identification are bracelets and noncontact plastic cards with of a standard bank card size.

RFID labels are also can be built-in into car ignition keys to improve the protection against theft. The reader is located in the ignition switch and connected to the onboard computer.

  • Libraries

Libraries use RFID to replace the barcodes, which helps to speed up inventory and book search, automate delivery. In addition, the RFID labels can manage anti-theft features.

  • Passports

RFID tags are used as passports in many countries. The first RFID-passports (e-passports) have been introduced in Malaysia in 1998. In addition to the information stored on the visual page of the passport, the Malaysian e-passports also contain travel history (time, date and place), information about entry into and exit from the country.

  • Transportation payments

For an example of transportation payments based on RFID can be considered the Moscow Metro, where for the first time in Europe have been introduced RFID-smart cards. Then appeared various kinds of transportation cards, based on Mifare technology, social card of Muscovite or Student.

Almost everywhere in Europe, partly in Paris (France), Lyon and Marseille (France), Porto and Lisbon in Portugal, Turin (Italy), Brussels (Belgium), RFID gets the conformation to the international standard and starts to work in public transport systems. RFID technology is already used in Canada (Montreal), Mexico, Israel and Pereira in Colombia, Stavanger in Norway, and others.

  • Sports

RFID-chips can be used in sports orientation, triathlon and other sports. Athletes ware RFID-labels in the form of a bracelet. Ski pass, based on RFID is widely used in the mountain sports.

  • Remote control

For example, microwave RFID-tags are used for remote control of access to the fleet of vehicles.

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